|Class 12 Biology Marks Distribution |
|Units ||Marks |
|Reproduction ||14 |
|Genetics and Evolution ||18 |
|Biology and Human Welfare ||14 |
|Biotechnology and its Applications ||12 |
|Ecology and Environment ||12 |
|Total ||70 |
CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus
- Reproduction in Organisms
- Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
- Human Reproduction
- Reproductive Health
- Principles of Inheritance and Variation
- Molecular Basis of Inheritance
- Human Health and Diseases
- Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
- Microbes in Human Welfare
- Biotechnology - Principles and Processes
- Biotechnology and its Application
- Organisms and Populations
- Biodiversity and its Conservation
- Environmental Issues
Course Syllabus Details
Unit VI. Reproduction
Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms
- A characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species
- Modes of Reproduction −
- Asexual reproduction
- Sexual reproduction
- Asexual reproduction −
- Modes-Binary fission
- vegetative propagation in plants
Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
- Flower structure
- Development of male and female gametophytes
- Pollination −
- Outbreeding devices
- Pollen-Pistil interaction
- Double fertilization
- Post fertilization Events-Development of endosperm and embryo
- Development of seed and formation of fruit
- Special modes −
- Significance of seed and fruit formation
Chapter 3: Human Reproduction
- Male and female reproductive systems
- Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary
- Gametogenesis −
- Menstrual cycle
- Fertilisation embryo development up to blastocyst formation, implantation pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea)
- Parturition (Elementary idea)
- Lactation (Elementary idea)
Chapter 4: Reproductive Health
- Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD)
- Birth control −
- Need and Methods
- Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP)
- Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies −
- GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness)
Unit VII. Genetics and Evolution
Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation
- Mendelian Inheritance
- Deviations from Mendelism −
- Incomplete dominance
- Multiple alleles
- Inheritance of blood groups
- Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance
- Chromosome theory of inheritance
- Chromosomes and genes
- Sex determination in −
- Linkage and crossing over
- Sex linked inheritance −
- Colour blindness
- Mendelian disorder in humans
- Chromosomal disorders in humans −
- Down's syndrome
- Klinefelter's syndromes
Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance
- Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material
- Structure of DNA and RNA
- DNA packaging
- DNA replication
- Central dogma
- Transcription, genetic code, translation
- Gene expression and regulation −
- Genome and human ganeome project
- DNA fingerprinting
Chapter 7: Evolution
- Origin of life
- Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (Paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence)
- Darwin's contribution
- Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution
- Mechanism of evolution −
- Variation (Mutation and Recombination)
- Natural Selection with examples
- Types of natural selection
- Gene flow and genetic drift
- Hardy - Weinberg's principle
- Adaptive Radiation
- Human evolution
Unit VIII. Biology and Human Welfare
Chapter 8: Human Health and Diseases
- Pathogens - parasites causing human diseases −
- Common cold
- Ring worm
- Basic concepts of immunology – Vaccines −
- Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse
Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
- Improvement in food production −
- Plant breeding
- Tissue culture
- Single cell protein
- Animal husbandry
Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare
- In household food processing
- Industrial production
- Sewage treatment
- Energy generation and as biocontrol agents
- Antibiotics −
- Production and judicious use
Unit IX. Biotechnology and Its Applications
Chapter 11: Biotechnology - Principles and Processes
- Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
Chapter 12: Biotechnology and its Application
- Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture −
- Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy
- Genetically modified organisms - Bt crops
- Transgenic Animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents
Unit X. Ecology and Environment
Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations
- Organisms and environment −
- Ecological adaptations
- Population interactions −
- Population attributes −
- Birth rate
- Death rate
- Age distribution
Chapter 14: Ecosystem
- Energy flow
- Pyramids of number, biomass, energy
- Nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous)
- Ecological succession
- Ecological services −
- Carbon fixation
- Seed dispersal
- Oxygen release (in brief)
Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation
- Concept of biodiversity
- Patterns of biodiversity
- Importance of biodiversity
- Loss of biodiversity
- Biodiversity conservation −
- Endangered organisms
- Red data book
- Biosphere reserves
- National parks
- Ramsar sites
Chapter-16: Environmental Issues
- Air pollution and its control
- Water pollution and its control
- Agrochemicals and their effects
- Solid waste management
- Radioactive waste management
- Greenhouse effect and climate change
- Ozone layer depletion
- Any one case study as success story addressing environmental issue(s).
Part A: List of Experiments
- Study pollen germination on a slide.
- Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.
- Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH, clarity and presence of any living organisms.
- Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at two widely different sites.
- Study of plant population density by quadrat method.
- Study of plant population frequency by quadrat method.
- Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.
- Study the effect of different temperatures and three different pH on the activity of salivary amylase on starch.
- Isolation of DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya, etc.
Part B: Study/observation of the following (Spotting)
- Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insect, bird).
- Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide.
- Identification of stages of gamete development, i.e., T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slides (from grasshopper/mice).
- Meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slides.
- T.S. of blastula through permanent slides.
- Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/sizes of any plant.
- Prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, ear lobes, widow's peak and colour blindness.
- Controlled pollination - emasculation, tagging and bagging.
- Common disease causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, Roundworm through permanent slides or specimens. Comment on symptoms of disease that they cause.
- Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in xeric conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.
- Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.
Structure of CBSE Biology Sample Paper for Class 12 Science is
|Type of Question ||Marks per Question ||Total No. of Questions ||Total Marks |
|Very Short Answer Type Questions ||1 ||5 ||5 |
|Short Answer Type Questions - 1 ||2 ||7 ||14 |
|Short Answer Type Questions - 2 ||3 ||12 ||36 |
|Long Answer Type Questions ||3 ||5 ||15 |
|Total ||27 ||70 |
For Preparation of exams students can also check out other resource material
CBSE Class 12 Biology Sample Papers
CBSE Class 12 Biology Worksheets
CBSE Class 12 Biology Test Papers
CBSE Class 12 Biology Important Questions
CBSE Class 12 Biology Question Papers
Number of students believe that making notes is a troublesome act. But it is a hard known fact that with proper study notes, studying and passing exams becomes easier and that too with good marks. More importantly, it makes learning more interesting and fun.
Why Should Students make Revision Notes?
1. When students make notes, they are forced to understand everything in their own language and words so that you understand things better. Often students tend to blindly read the entire page without giving a chance to understand a single word, but in case they are making notes then, then the brain gets double activated and tries to squeeze meaning out of every single sentence which is very much beneficial for them in the long run. Study notes keep track of all the information they have learned from them. It acts as a ready referral to go through during preparing for exam time.
2. The extra pain of writing notes while studying pays a lot of dividends like saving student’s energy and time during the exam and it becomes an immensely easier way to recall things during exam time when students are already facing shortage of time.
3. When students write notes on paper while studying, it automatically improves memory, allowing the students to study more when studying and reducing the chances of forgetting.
4. When students inculcate the habit of study notes making while studying it increases attention to detail and the focus of the students. And it is a known fact that students who have good focus are more likely to do better in exams.
5. When it comes to learning, it has been observed that study notes do promote a high level of retention. When learning is an important part of tutoring, one of the major necessary end goals is retention. So when a student indulges in notes making , the study notes promotes positive memory as well as the ability to retain information because the mind becomes an active component in studying.
6. Repetition is the key to mastery. A well known fact gets also implied in the case of Making study notes, because when students study then he instantly revises everything while making notes and that stimulates the part of the brain that promotes learning. Like every muscle in the body, the brain can be trained to learn easily in order to absorb new and more information quickly.
7. Making study notes helps in filtration of the relevant and important information. When the student writes study notes while studying, they tend to make the notes by summarising, editing and retaining only the most important information.
8. Making study notes passively increases the likelihood of the students to become more organised. Being organised allows students to prioritise tasks and to finish work on time.